Tag Archives: New Mexico

Valles Caldera National Preserve or the Super Volcano of New Mexico

The vast Valles Caldera National Preserve

The stunning Jemez Mountains of Northern New Mexico were created by volcanic activity over thirteen million years and once stood higher than Mount Everest. An eruption, estimated at 500 times greater than the 1980 Mount St. Helens event, caused the super volcano to collapse.  A 12-mile wide crater formed, known as the Valles Caldera, and gradually filled with about 5,000 feet of ash and debris.

The Grand Valley existed as a home to Pueblo people for centuries until they eventually fled. Between 1860 and 2000 it functioned as the  privately owned Baca Ranch.  In 2000, Congress purchased 94,000 acres, deeding 5,000 acres to the Santa Clara Pueblo and designating the remaining 89,000 as the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Under the terms of the Act, the Preserve is managed by a trust and must produce sustaining income, a new and demanding  policy as opposed to being protected as a National Park.

On a recent trip to New Mexico, my group explored Bandelier National Monument in the morning (see previous blog post here) then headed, by car, up a pass into the Jemez Mountains. Upon partial descent an enormous field of gold suddenly appeared. The 180 degree head turning sight was so unexpected and vast, it justifies the term jaw dropping gorgeous. Everyone in the van gasped with oohs and aahs. The hollowed out valley looked like a former test site for an atomic bomb now overgrown with grass resembling melted butter.  Unfortunately rain started to fall and low lying clouds and fog crept in, limiting the visibility and photo opportunities.

The ponderosa pines at Valles Caldera

Nonetheless, we met with guides who shared their telescopes permitting us to spy on an elk herd of 2,500-3,500 in the distance. Seeing hundreds of animals as tiny specs put  the enormity of the area into perspective.  The majestic acreage  including Redondo Peak at an elevation of 11,254 feet encompasses forests, grasslands and wetlands which are open to the public.

We drove down into the Preserve through a flourishing grove of ponderosa pine and seized the opportunity to get out of the rain and picnic inside a three bedroom bunkhouse.The rustic but upscale rental property felt log-cabin cozy and the living room offered panoramic views of  the valley. The bunkhouse, another lodge which sleeps sixteen people, as well as primitive campsites can be reserved- think family reunion.

The Valles Caldera Trust is experimenting with methods to use, sustain and fund the Preserve with activities and events such as:  cross country skiing , snowshoeing, sleigh/wagon rides, fly fishing,  turkey hunting, equestrian trail riding, hiking, van tours, photography workshops, mountain biking, marathon races and archery contests. They also run educational workshops and camps while continually watching for ecological change.

A small cabin rests within the Valles Caldera

Rob Dixon, Recreation Program Manager said, “We keep the numbers of visitors small so you’ll feel like you have the place to yourself. This means you can really experience a sense of solitude. I’m sure you’ll find the visit unlike any other you’ve had in a park or national forest.” I was impressed with the park and the dedicated staff. Let’s hope this type of national  preservation program works.

A Visit to the City That Never Was: Los Alamos, New Mexico

Museum replicas of the first atomic bombs

In 1943 the private Ranch School for “privileged boys” was forced to close and the government appropriated the property for the home of the Manhattan Project. Today, a story like that might raise some sort of investigation, but in the war-torn forties, everything stayed hush- hush. The isolated New Mexican plateau, Los Alamos, was chosen to become headquarters for research and development of the atomic bomb.

Many of the world’s greatest scientific minds accepted the southwestern assignment and were led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, a theoretical physicist, from 1942-45. They understood the significance of the endeavor and believed the power of a nuclear bomb would end World War II. They also worried that the Germans were developing nuclear warfare and wanted to beat them.

Army administrators, technicians, and all other workers, however, were expected to take jobs in this unknown place for an unknown purpose.  Not even their spouses were told where they were sent or why. The name Los Alamos became forbidden for security reasons and the area became known as “the Hill.”

A hastily built “Secret City” sprung up with nameless streets. Drivers licenses, auto registrations, bank accounts, income tax returns were issued to numbers rather than names.  Outgoing mail was censored, long distance calls monitored, all incoming mail was addressed simply to “PO Box 1663, Santa Fe, NM.” No one was permitted to mention titles or occupations of fellow residents, give names of nearby places or describe the view to prevent the location from becoming known.

As work progressed, the intensity of the project continued to expand, as did the number of employees, many of whom labored twelve or more hours a days to reach the goal. They pushed forward and successfully assembled and tested the first atomic bomb, approximately 200 miles from Los Alamos, in Alamagordo on July 16, 1945. By early August, President Truman gave orders to drop the powerful new bombs on Japan and shortly thereafter, the Japanese surrendered on September 2, 1945.

I recently visited the New Mexican region and learned the details and importance of this historic endeavor, something essentially unknown to today’s children. Fortunately two museums in Los Alamos keep the story alive.

Bradbury Science Museum

The Los Alamos Historical Museum, housed in one of the guest cottages from the old Ranch School,  highlights the region’s lifestyle changes from ancient to modern. The  collection includes personal artifacts and memorabilia such as native pueblo pottery, old driver’s licenses and envelopes addressed to the Santa Fe PO Box, post-war board games toying with nuclear destruction and 1970’s anti-war bumper stickers.

The free Bradbury Science Museum informs visitors about the war days, the Manhattan Project and its covert mission through a timeline using newspaper headlines, photos, news reel footage and documents. Their must-see movie portrays the obstacles faced by the U.S. team in trying to create the first atomic bomb. The exhibit area features replicas of Little Boy and Fat Man, the nicknamed bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

A second film in the Bradbury explains the on-going national security mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Even though the lab also engages in genetic research, it remains a place of secrecy as the official “stockpile steward, ” ensuring the safety and reliability of  US nuclear supplies.

The Atomic City

Since the lab is the area’s major employer it’s not surprising that a study conducted by American City Business Journals in 2004, reported that Los Alamos County has one of the highest number of PhDs per capita in the US.

To me, the town exudes a mysterious aura, it feels tight. Roadblocks still exist, but are seldom used. A guide told me not to point my camera or photograph the exterior of official lab buildings, not even from across the street. Los Alamos seems torn between touting its historical title, “The Atomic City” or presenting a more peaceful modern face. Who knows if the culture can or should be separated from science and technology?

The bomb created on this New Mexican mesa might have ended a war, but it sparked a global obligation to respect its power. One we should not forget.

For further information please listen to Tom Wilmer’s radio interview:Los Alamos Labs2

Bounding Through Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

Bandalier National Monument in New Mexico

Bandalier National Monument in Los Alamos, New Mexico isn’t officially a National Park, but the National Park Service manages it. The area features 33,750 acres of dramatic cliffs and walled canyons, and is the home of ancestral Pueblo people. A visitor’s center has recently been rehabilitated and updated with a high definition new movie: This Place Knows Us.

Start with the movie, then proceed through the interpretive exhibits of the ancient Pueblo culture. Of course, there’s a gift shop, too.

Tyuonyi Ruins

Leave plenty of time to get out on the 70 miles of trails. The closest archeological site is just 400 yards from the center and can be reached by the paved 1.2 mile Main Loop trail.  The ruins of the Tyuonyi, a circular village of about 600 rooms, and the nearby cliff dwellings make an hour round trip. These are communities dating back over 900 years.

Not having traveled much in the Southwest, I was thrilled with the opportunity to climb the ladders into hollowed out cave dwellings. The views of sharp terra-cotta colored ledges glow majestically and the whole area pervades a spiritual sense. Look for a series of cave rooms called the long house, a reconstructed talus house, an adobe construction built on the slopes or talus, and some petroglyths.

Climbing into a cave dwelling

Believe it or not, only one other person from my group wanted to venture another mile further off trail to Alcove House.  That’s likely because we’d need to push ourselves to make it there and back on time. But, it just so happened that the other person was famous travel photographer, Peter Guttman. If for no other reason that to watch Peter at work, I was going, huffing and puffing aside!

So Peter and I hiked as fast as we could and then climbed 140 feet straight up a series of ladders to reach the Ceremonial Cave or Alcove House. I found it exhilarating since I didn’t have time to worry over the scary drop below.  Warning:  these ladders are very steep and would not be safe for younger children. And this park has an elevation around 7,000 feet which makes breathing somewhat difficult for a sea level Floridian.

The climb to Alcove House

Ah…the reward. At the top Peter and I found a round reconstructed kiva (underground pueblo dwelling for ceremonies) overlooking a view that stretched seemingly forever. I didn’t descend down the kiva rather choosing to sit and meditate, soaking up the sacred vibes. (That and catch my breath.)  Up there my imagination could easily hear the beat of a drum and envision ancients performing a ritual to the gods. If you go to Bandelier, by all means, make the effort to climb to Alcove House.

Peter descend into the Kiva

Hustling back down, Peter and I ran into Tom Wilmer, who was interviewing a Park Ranger along a trail for his NPR radio show. We also ran into a tarantula, although I was hoping for an American pika, a small rodent related to a rabbit. No luck.

Bandalier National Monument stays open year round but offers no lodging within the park. Reservations are required for the limited campgrounds. The National Park Service Junior Ranger Program awards patches to children completing a booklets about the site.

May I also recommend photographer Peter Guttman’s collection of images spanning three decades, all seven continents and 160 countries. These amazing photos are available on Beautiful Planet —  a groundbreaking app that captures the beauty of our world and its cultures. If I had a Mac or i-Pos I’d own it.

Check it out at:  Beautiful Planet

Walking with the Park Ranger